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|Comparing stimulation-induced pain during percutaneous (intramuscular) and transcutaneous neuromuscular electric stimulation for treating shoulder subluxation in hemiplegia|
|Yu DT, Chae J, Walker ME, Hart RL, Petroski GF|
|Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 2001 Jun;82(6):756-760|
|5/10 [Eligibility criteria: Yes; Random allocation: Yes; Concealed allocation: No; Baseline comparability: No; Blind subjects: No; Blind therapists: No; Blind assessors: Yes; Adequate follow-up: Yes; Intention-to-treat analysis: No; Between-group comparisons: Yes; Point estimates and variability: Yes. Note: Eligibility criteria item does not contribute to total score] *This score has been confirmed*|
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether percutaneous (intramuscular) neuromuscular electric stimulation (perc-NMES) is less painful than transcutaneous neuromuscular electric stimulation (trans-NMES) for treating shoulder subluxation in hemiplegia. DESIGN: Double-blind, crossover trial. SETTING: University-affiliated tertiary care hospital. PARTICIPANTS: A convenience sample of 10 hemiplegic sub jects with at least 1 fingerbreadth of glenohumeral subluxation. INTERVENTIONS: All subjects received 3 randomly ordered pairs of perc-NMES and trans-NMES to the supraspinatus and posterior deltoid muscles of the subluxated shoulder. Both types of stimulation were optimized to provide full joint reduction with minimal discomfort. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pain was assessed after each stimulation with a 10-cm visual analog scale (VAS) and the McGill Pain Questionnaire, using the Pain Rating Index (PRI) scoring method. Subjects were asked which type of stimulation they would prefer for 6 weeks of treatment. Wilcoxon's signed-rank test was used to compare median differences in VAS and PRI between perc-NMES and trans-NMES. RESULTS: Median VAS scores for perc-NMES and trans-NMES were 1 and 5.7, respectively (p = 0.007). Median PRI scores for perc-NMES and trans-NMES were 7 and 19,5, respectively (p = 0.018). Nine of the 10 subjects preferred perc-NMES to trans-NMES for treatment. CONCLUSION: Data suggest that perc-NMES is less painful than trans-NMES in the treatment of shoulder subluxation in hemiplegia.