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|Combined exercise training improves blood pressure and antioxidant capacity in elderly individuals with hypertension|
|Ruangthai R, Phoemsapthawee J|
|Journal of Exercise Science and Fitness 2019 Jan;17(2):67-76|
|5/10 [Eligibility criteria: Yes; Random allocation: Yes; Concealed allocation: No; Baseline comparability: Yes; Blind subjects: No; Blind therapists: No; Blind assessors: No; Adequate follow-up: Yes; Intention-to-treat analysis: No; Between-group comparisons: Yes; Point estimates and variability: Yes. Note: Eligibility criteria item does not contribute to total score] *This score has been confirmed*|
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Although regular exercise plays a role in achieving healthy aging, a specific mode of exercise may be required for elderly individuals with hypertension (HT). Therefore, this study aimed to assess the effects of combined endurance and strength training (CBT) on blood pressure (BP) and antioxidant capacity in elderly individuals with HT. METHODS: In a single-blinded, randomized controlled trial, 54 older men and women aged 67 +/- 5.8 years completed endurance training (ET n = 13), strength training (ST n = 13), combined endurance and strength training (CBT n = 16) or served as controls (CON n = 12). The intervention was a supervised exercise training (1-h sessions, three per week for 12 weeks), followed by a self-supervised exercise training for 12 weeks. Measurements of BP, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), total nitrite/nitrate (NOx-), malondialdehyde (MDA), and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were obtained before and after the supervised and the self-supervised periods. RESULTS: After the supervised period, systolic BP (SBP) decreased by 7.9% in the ET (p < 0.05) and 8.2% in the CBT (p < 0.01); GPx activity increased by 41.3% in the ET (p < 0.01), 19.1% in the ST (p < 0.05), and 49.2% in the CBT (p < 0.01); NOx-concentrations increased by 66.2% in the ET and 71.9% in the CBT (both p < 0.01), MDA concentrations decreased by 65.1% in the ST (p < 0.05) and 61% in the CBT (p < 0.01); hs-CRP concentrations decreased by 49.2% in only the CBT (p < 0.05). After the self-supervised period, SBP decreases by 7.5% in only the CBT (p < 0.01); NOx-concentrations increased by 68.5% in the ET and 92.4% in the CBT (both p < 0.01). However, there was no significant difference in SBP, GPx activity, NOx-, MDA and hs-CRP concentrations between the training groups. CONCLUSION: The hypotensive and antioxidant effects of the CBT seem to be similar to the ET after the supervised training period. However, after the self-supervised training period, the CBT program might affect better due to greater exercise adherence and attendance in elderly individuals with HT.