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|The immediate effects of breathing with oscillated inspiratory and expiratory airflows on secretion clearance in intubated patients with cervical spinal cord injury|
|Kluayhomthong S, Ubolsakka-Jones C, Domthong P, Reechaipichitkul W, Jones DA|
|Spinal Cord 2019 Apr;57(4):308-316|
|5/10 [Eligibility criteria: Yes; Random allocation: Yes; Concealed allocation: No; Baseline comparability: Yes; Blind subjects: No; Blind therapists: No; Blind assessors: Yes; Adequate follow-up: No; Intention-to-treat analysis: No; Between-group comparisons: Yes; Point estimates and variability: Yes. Note: Eligibility criteria item does not contribute to total score] *This score has been confirmed*|
STUDY DESIGN: A prospective, randomized crossover trial. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of the combination of incentive spirometry with oscillation (OIS) and positive expiratory pressure with oscillation (OPEP) to promote secretion clearance in intubated patients with cervical spinal cord injury. SETTING: Spinal cord unit, tertiary care hospital, North East Thailand. METHODS: Thirteen intubated patients (C4 to 7, AIS score C) with secretion retention performed three interventions randomly allocated on consecutive days, a Sham deep breathing, OPEP and OPEP plus OIS breathing exercise. Secretions were collected by sterile suction for 3 h before, and 3 h after, each intervention and wet weight recorded. Cardiopulmonary parameters were measured before and after each intervention. RESULTS: The median (IQR) secretion wet weight pre-intervention was 2.61 g (2.21 to 3.85) and in the 3 h after Sham there was an increase of 1.97 g (0.6 to 3.6). The increase after OPEP was 2.67 g (1.7 to 3.9) and after OPEP plus OIS, 4.28 g (2.4 to 6.7); all the increases being significant (p <= 0.007). The clearance after OPEP and OPEP plus OIS were both greater than Sham while OPEP plus OIS was greater than OPEP (p <= 0.019). There were no significant changes in cardiopulmonary measures following any intervention or when compared between interventions. CONCLUSIONS: Deep breathing with an oscillated and humidified air flow in a combination of OIS plus OPEP more than doubled secretion clearance and was more effective than OPEP or Sham deep breathing. There were no adverse effects of the procedures which were well tolerated by the patients and may be used to complement existing methods for secretion clearance.