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Effects of self-management programs on behavioral modification among individuals with chronic disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials
Kim S, Park M, Song R
PLoS ONE 2021 Jul;16(7):e0254995
systematic review

The prevalence of chronic disease associated with unhealthy lifestyles has been increasing worldwide. Health professionals have recognized that self-management programs (SMPs) can provide health benefits by promoting health behaviors, especially when applied to individuals with lifestyle-related chronic disease. This review performed a meta-analysis of the features of SMPs using randomized studies and analyzed the magnitude of the combined effects of self-management on behavioral modification. We searched the PubMed, CINAHL, ScienceDirect, Scopus, Web of Science, Embase, Cochrane Library, DBpia, and KISS to identify randomized trials that evaluated the behavioral outcomes of SMPs. Subgroup analyses were performed for program duration, providers, type of comparisons, and program settings. We selected 25 studies (N = 5,681) to perform analyses with random-effects models. The effect sizes of SMPs were small but significant for physical activity (standardized difference in means (SDM) 0.25), dietary habits (SDM 0.28), and health responsibility (SDM 0.18), and not significant for stress management and smoking behaviors. A short-term SMPs (less than 12 weeks) was indicated as being effective in modifying physical activity, dietary habits, and health responsibility, while the program effects on dietary habits were significant only with expert-delivered education and when compared with inactive controls. The findings of this study indicate that SMPs can effectively improve physical activity, dietary habits, and health responsibility in individuals with chronic disease, with a small but significant effect size. Future studies should explore the effects of SMPs on stress management and smoking cessation and assess the long-term maintenance of healthy lifestyles in individuals with lifestyle-related chronic disease.

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