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Effectiveness of radial extracorporeal shock wave therapy and visual feedback balance training on lower limb post-stroke spasticity, trunk performance, and balance: a randomized controlled trial
Mihai EE, Mihai IV, Berteanu M
Journal of Clinical Medicine 2022 Jan;11(1):147
clinical trial
9/10 [Eligibility criteria: Yes; Random allocation: Yes; Concealed allocation: Yes; Baseline comparability: Yes; Blind subjects: Yes; Blind therapists: No; Blind assessors: Yes; Adequate follow-up: Yes; Intention-to-treat analysis: Yes; Between-group comparisons: Yes; Point estimates and variability: Yes. Note: Eligibility criteria item does not contribute to total score] *This score has been confirmed*

Stroke remains one of the leading causes of disability in adults, and lower limb spasticity, affected stance, and balance impact everyday life and activities of such patients. Robotic therapy and assessment are becoming important tools to clinical evaluation for post-stroke rehabilitation. The aim of this study was to determine in a more objective manner the effects of visual feedback balance training through a balance trainer system and radial extracorporeal shock wave therapy (rESWT), along with conventional physiotherapy, on lower limb post-stroke spasticity, trunk control, and static and dynamic balance through clinical and stabilometric assessment. The study was designed as a randomized controlled trial. The experimental group underwent conventional physiotherapy, visual feedback balance training, and rESWT. The control group underwent conventional physiotherapy, visual feedback training and sham rESWT. The statistical analysis was performed using GraphPad Software and MATLAB. Primary clinical outcome measures were The Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS), passive range of motion (PROM), Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), and Clonus score. Secondary outcome measures were trunk performance, sensorimotor, and lower limb function. Stabilomet-ric outcome measures were trunk control, static balance, and dynamic balance. Visual feedback training using the Prokin system and rESWT intervention, along with conventional physiotherapy, yielded statistically significant improvement both on clinical and stabilometric outcome measures, enhancing static and dynamic balance, trunk performance, sensorimotor outcome, and limb function and considerably diminishing lower limb spasticity, pain intensity, and clonus score in the experimental group.

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