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Combined training improves the expression profile of inflammation-associated antimicrobial peptides, MicroRNAs, and TLR-4 in patients with multiple sclerosis
Yousefi Saqqezi S, Azamian Jazi A, Hemmati R, Jivad N
Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology 2021 Aug;20(4):441-452
clinical trial
5/10 [Eligibility criteria: No; Random allocation: Yes; Concealed allocation: No; Baseline comparability: Yes; Blind subjects: No; Blind therapists: No; Blind assessors: No; Adequate follow-up: Yes; Intention-to-treat analysis: No; Between-group comparisons: Yes; Point estimates and variability: Yes. Note: Eligibility criteria item does not contribute to total score] *This score has been confirmed*

Some antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), microRNAs (miRs), and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) are involved in autoimmune diseases, which may be affected by exercise training. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an eight-week combined exercise training (aerobic and resistance) on the expression of inflammatory factors, including, human beta-defensin-2 (hBD-2), cathelicidin (LL-37), TLR-4, miR-23b, miR-155, and miR-326 in women with relapsing and remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), which has not been investigated yet. Twenty-three women (20 to 40 years) with RRMS were randomized into the combined training (CT) and control (CON) groups. The CT group subjects completed eight weeks of supervised CT using a treadmill and stationary bicycle for aerobic exercise and weight machines for resistance exercise. The expression levels of hBD-2, LL-37, TLR-4, miR-23b, miR-155, and miR-326 were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) at the baseline and end of the study. Although the expression of hBD-2 and miR-23b decreased in both CT and CON groups, the reduction was lower in the CT group than in the CON group (p = 0.001). The expression of LL-37 in the CT group remained unchanged, but that of the CON group increased; thus, the between-group difference was significant. Although the TLR-4, miR-155, and miR-326 expression increased in both groups compared to the baseline, the increase in the CT group was lower than the CON group. Our results showed that the combined training might improve inflammatory symptoms by affecting the expression of some AMPs, miRs, and TLR-4 in patients with relapsing and remitting multiple sclerosis.

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