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|Effectiveness of warm-up intervention programs to prevent sports injuries among children and adolescents: a systematic review and meta-analysis|
|Ding L, Luo J, Smith DM, Mackey M, Fu H, Davis M, Hu Y|
|International Journal of Environmental Research & Public Health 2022 May;19(10):6336|
Sports participation by children and adolescents often results in injuries. Therefore, injury prevention warm-up programs are imperative for youth sports safety. The purpose of this paper was to assess the effectiveness of warm-up intervention programs (WIP) on upper and lower limb sports injuries through a systematic review and meta-analysis. Searches for relevant studies were performed on PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, SPORTDiscus, and Cochrane databases. Studies selected met the following criteria: original data; analytic prospective design; investigated a WIP and included outcomes for injury sustained during sports participation. Two authors assessed the quality of evidence using Furlan's criteria. Comprehensive Meta-Analysis 3.3 software was used to process and analyze the outcome indicators of the literature. Across fifteen studies, the pooled point estimated injury rate ratio (IRR) was 0.64 (95% CI 0.54 to 0.75; 36% reduction) while accounting for hours of risk exposure. Publication bias assessment suggested a 6% reduction in the estimate (IRR 0.70, 95% CI 0.60 to 0.82), and the prediction interval intimated that any study estimate could still fall between 0.34 and 1.19. Subgroup analyses identified one significant moderator that existed in the subgroup of compliance (p < 0.01) and might be the source of heterogeneity. Compared with the control group, WIPs significantly reduced the injury rate ratio of upper and lower limb sports injuries in children and adolescents.