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Effects of omega-3 supplementation alone and combined with resistance exercise on skeletal muscle in older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Cornish SM, Cordingley DM, Shaw KA, Forbes SC, Leonhardt T, Bristol A, Candow DG, Chilibeck PD
Nutrients 2022 Jun;14(11):2221
systematic review

Sarcopenia negatively affects skeletal muscle mass and function in older adults. Omega-3 (omega-3) fatty acid supplementation, with or without resistance exercise training (RET), is suggested to play a role as a therapeutic component to prevent or treat the negative effects of sarcopenia. A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted on the impact of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation with or without RET on measures of muscle mass and function in older adults (>= 55 y). The data sources included SPORTDiscus, PubMed, and Medline. All the study types involving omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on measures of muscle mass and function in older adults (without disease) were included. The mean differences (MDs) or standardized mean differences (SMDs) with 95% confidence intervals were calculated and pooled effects assessed. Sixteen studies (1,660 females, 778 males) met our inclusion criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. omega-3 fatty acid supplementation did not impact lean tissue mass (SMD 0.09 (-0.10 to 0.28). Benefits were observed for lower body strength (SMD 0.54 (0.33 to 0.75), Timed-Up-and-Go (MD 0.29 (0.23 to 0.35), and 30-s sit-to-stand performance (MD 1.93 (1.59 to 2.26) repetitions) but not walking performance (SMD -0.01 (-0.10 to 0.07) or upper body strength (SMD 0.05 (-0.04 to 0.13). Supplementing with omega-3 fatty acids may improve the lower-body strength and functionality in older adults.

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