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Effects of resistance training on body weight and body composition in older adults: an inter-individual response difference meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Kelley GA, Kelley KS, Stauffer BL
Science Progress 2023 Apr-Jun;106(2):368504231179062
systematic review

Whether true inter-individual response differences (IIRD) occur as a result of resistance training on body weight and body composition in older adults with overweight and obesity is not known. To address this gap, data from a previous meta-analysis representing 587 men and women (333 resistance training, 254 control) >= 60 years of age nested in 15 randomized controlled trials of resistance training >= 8 weeks were included. Resistance training and control group change outcome standard deviations treated as point estimates for body weight and body composition (percent body fat, fat mass, body mass index in kg/m2, and lean body mass) were used to calculate true IIRD from each study. True IIRD as well as traditional pairwise comparisons were pooled using the inverse-variance (IVhet) model. Both 95% confidence intervals (CI) and prediction intervals (PI) were calculated. While statistically significant improvements were found for body weight and all body composition outcomes (p < 0.05 for all), no statistically significant IIRD was observed for any of the outcomes (p > 0.05 for all) and all 95% PIs overlapped. CONCLUSION: While resistance training is associated with improvements in body weight and body composition in older adults, the lack of true IIRD suggests that factors other than training response variation (random variation, physiological responses associated with behavioral changes that are not the result of resistance training) are responsible for the observed variation in body weight and body composition.

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