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|Biofeedback/relaxation training and exercise interventions for fibromyalgia: a prospective trial|
|Buckelew SP, Conway R, Parker J, Deuser WE, Read J, Witty TE, Hewett JE, Minor M, Johnson JC, van Male L, McIntosh MJ, Nigh M, Kay DR|
|Arthritis Care & Research 1998 Jun;11(3):196-209|
|6/10 [Eligibility criteria: Yes; Random allocation: Yes; Concealed allocation: No; Baseline comparability: Yes; Blind subjects: No; Blind therapists: No; Blind assessors: Yes; Adequate follow-up: Yes; Intention-to-treat analysis: No; Between-group comparisons: Yes; Point estimates and variability: Yes. Note: Eligibility criteria item does not contribute to total score] *This score has been confirmed*|
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of biofeedback/relaxation, exercise, and a combined program for the treatment of fibromyalgia. METHODS: Subjects (n = 119) were randomly assigned to one of 4 groups: (1) biofeedback/relaxation training, (2) exercise training, (3) a combination treatment, or (4) an educational/attention control program. RESULTS: All 3 treatment groups produced improvements in self-efficacy for function relative to the control condition. In addition, all treatment groups were significantly different from the control group on tender point index scores, reflecting a modest deterioration by the attention control group rather than improvements by the treatment groups. The exercise and combination groups also resulted in modest improvements on a physical activity measure. The combination group best maintained benefits across the 2-year period. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that these 3 treatment interventions result in improved self-efficacy for physical function which was best maintained by the combination group.