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Effects of combined exercises and short foot exercise with and without isometric hip abduction in women with flatfoot [with consumer summary]
Zarali A, Raeisi Z
Physical Treatments 2023 Jan;13(1):35-43
clinical trial
4/10 [Eligibility criteria: No; Random allocation: Yes; Concealed allocation: No; Baseline comparability: Yes; Blind subjects: No; Blind therapists: No; Blind assessors: No; Adequate follow-up: No; Intention-to-treat analysis: No; Between-group comparisons: Yes; Point estimates and variability: Yes. Note: Eligibility criteria item does not contribute to total score] *This score has been confirmed*

PURPOSE: This study aims to examine the effect of 6 weeks of combined exercises (CE), short foot exercise (SFE), and SFE with isometric hip abduction (IHA) on dynamic balance (DB), joint position sense (JPS), and strength in women with flexible flatfoot (FF). METHODS: A total of 40 women with flexible flatfoot (FF) participated in this semi-experimental study and were randomly assigned to three groups as follows; CE (n = 14), SFE (n = 13), and IHA (n = 13). Six weeks of exercise were split into 3 sessions under supervision and 3 sessions at home were completed by the participants. The Y balance test, goniometer, and dynamometer were used to assess DB, JPS, and strength before and after the exercises, respectively. The mixed-model repeated-measures multivariate analysis of variance statistical test was used to analyze the data with a significance level of 0.05. RESULTS: The results revealed that after performing the exercises, there was a significant difference in the DB in the SFE group in two posteromedial and posterolateral directions; meanwhile, in the IHA group this difference was in three directions, while in the CE group, it was in the posterolateral direction (p < 0.05). After the exercises, no significant difference was observed in either group's JPS or plantar flexors and dorsal flexors strength (p > 0.05). Between the groups, there was no difference in any of the other variables (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Considering that the DB changes in the IHA group were more than in the other two groups, these exercises are suggested to improve the DB in women with FF.

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