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The effect of 8-week online scapular-focused training on scapular kinematics, proprioception, and selected muscles strength in female volleyball players with glenohumeral internal rotation deficit [with consumer summary]
Shahsaheb M, Minonejad H, Zandi S
Physical Treatments 2023 Jul;13(3):175-185
clinical trial
3/10 [Eligibility criteria: No; Random allocation: Yes; Concealed allocation: No; Baseline comparability: Yes; Blind subjects: No; Blind therapists: No; Blind assessors: No; Adequate follow-up: No; Intention-to-treat analysis: No; Between-group comparisons: Yes; Point estimates and variability: No. Note: Eligibility criteria item does not contribute to total score] *This score has been confirmed*

PURPOSE: One of the most significant risk factors for throwing athletes is an internal rotation deficit of the shoulder joint. This study aims to investigate 8-week online scapular-focused training on the scapular kinematics, proprioception, and strength of particular shoulder muscles in female volleyball players with glenohumeral internal rotation deficit. METHODS: The present study was conducted using a two-group with pre and post-test design. Based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 30 female athletes with abnormalities in the shoulder joint's internal rotation were split into two groups, experimental (n = 15) and control (n = 15). In the pre-test, goniometers were used to measure shoulder range of motion, isokinetic devices were used to measure proprioception and rotator cuff muscle strength, and inclinometers were used to measure scapular kinematics. The experimental group's participants underwent 8-week online scapular-focused training, lasting 30 minutes over three sessions each week. These exercises encompassed strength (with TheraBand) and stretching activities. Ultimately, intra-group and inter-group differences were examined using SPSS software, version 20 using paired t-tests and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) at a significance level of 0.95. RESULTS: The results of paired t-test revealed that only the experimental group and the pre-test and post-test had a significant difference in all study variables (p < 0.05). Additionally, the results of the analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) demonstrated a significant difference between the two groups' shoulder proprioception at 45 degrees and 90 degrees in the post-test (p = 0.001 and p = 0.01, respectively). The two groups also differed significantly in the scapular kinematics at all angles of 45 degrees, 90 degrees, and 135 degrees as well as at the limit of the shoulder's range of motion (p = 0.01, p = 0.04, p = 0.001, and p = 0.001, respectively). Additionally, significant differences were observed between the two groups in all variables of isokinetic strength of concentric internal rotation, isokinetic strength of concentric external rotation, isokinetic strength of eccentric internal rotation, and isokinetic strength of eccentric external rotation (p = 0.001, p = 0.02, and p = 0.001, respectively). CONCLUSION: Based on the results, it can be concluded that 8-week online scapular-focused training improves scapular kinematics, proprioception, and shoulder internal and external rotator muscle strength in female volleyball players experiencing internal rotation deficiencies of the shoulder joint. It is advised that coaches, experts, and occupational therapists employ these workouts to enhance the aforementioned factors in female volleyball players experiencing shoulder internal rotation deficiencies.

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